Last updated 2019/09/10
1.1. These general terms and conditions defined in this text as “Terms and Conditions” regulate the usage of games and play provided through www.speedycasino.com, which are managed by Hero Gaming Limited (the "websites").
1.2. Hero Gaming Limited is a company incorporated in Malta with registration number C61794, having its registered address at Level 0, Spinola Park, Triq Mikiel Ang Borg, SPK 1000, Malta.
1.3. Hero Gaming Limited is operating under a three-year Swedish licence to offer online commercial gambling and betting pursuant to a decision by Lotteriinspektionen (changed to “Spelinspektionen”) in case number 18Li7408 (https://www.spelinspektionen.se), the single Authority and Regulator, responsible issuing of licenses and governance of gaming in Sweden.
1.4. Hero Gaming Limited is referred to as “Speedy Casino”, “we” or “us” and the player as “you” or “the Player”.
1.5 “Games”, “the Games” or “Game” refers to any of the gaming products offered at the Websites.
1.6. The current version of this agreement is valid until a new version is in place on the Websites.
1.7. The Terms and Conditions also apply to all platforms and devices that enable game play of games provided by Speedy Casino. ‘Games’ are defined as Casino and other games available on the Websites.
1.8. Speedy Casino reserves the right to modify these Terms and Conditions and they become valid from the time they are made available on the Websites. You will be notified in advance when changes to the Terms and Conditions occur and you will need to accept these changes to the Terms and Conditions before they become binding to both you and us. Should you not accept the changes to the Terms and Conditions you will not be able to login into your account and if you have a positive balance in your account, you will need to contact us on [email protected] or through chat when available in order to withdraw it.
1.9. You must read and understand these Terms and Conditions fully before accepting the agreement. In the case that you do not agree with any part of these Terms and Conditions, you must not use or continue to use the Websites.
1.10. These Terms and Conditions become applicable when you register and confirm your registration details in the registration process on the Websites. By registering an account with Speedy Casino, you agree that you have read these Terms and Conditions and accept them. By using any of the Websites you signify that you agree with these, at the time, current Terms and Conditions.
1.11. You understand and agree to be bound by the Terms and Conditions contained in this text, as may be amended from time to time.
1.12. These Terms & Conditions may be published in a number of languages, reflecting the same principles, for information purposes and to help players. In case of any discrepancy between the English version and the non-English version of these Terms and Conditions, the version more favourable to you shall prevail.
2. Your Obligations
2.1. You may only have one account on each of the Websites provided by us, SpeedyCasino has the right to terminate any duplicate account.
2.2. By registering on the Websites, you declare that you are over 18 years of age. Upon registration, Speedy Casino will verify your identity through a reliable electronic identification (BankID). Speedy Casino may however take further steps to verify your age and you agree to supply Speedy Casino with any relevant information, including copies of identity documents or any other document as required, and which we request. Should age verification checks results show that you are under 18 years of age, your deposits will be returned to you promptly (within 5 business days) and winnings shall be voided. It is your sole responsibility to know whether online gambling is legal in your country of residence.
2.3. You are solely responsible for the account details such as username and password as well as BankID or any other means to access your account at the Websites. In the case there is suspicion that such information should have been compromised you must inform Speedy Casino and take proper actions to prohibit or prevent any unauthorised access to any part of your account or funds. Should you be aware of any unauthorized access, you may contact us via Live Chat and accessible on the Website main page. You may also use the Live Chat function to report any breaches of Terms and Conditions or game rules or to immediately notify Speedy Casino of any cheating or suspected cheating when playing the Games.
2.4. You may use the Games on your own behalf and not on the behalf of any other person or company.
2.5. You may participate in the Games strictly in your personal non-professional capacity for recreational and entertainment reasons only.
2.6. Upon registration, Speedy Casino will verify that you are a resident in Sweden. You are not allowed to access the Website and/or register an account from a jurisdiction that prohibits online gambling; nor must you do so if you are a citizen of a country that prohibits its citizens from participating in online gambling, irrespective of their location. Speedy Casino also prohibits persons located in (including temporary visitors) or residents of certain jurisdictions in accordance with applicable legislation. For the avoidance of doubt, registration from countries that do not feature on the dropdown options available at registration stage, is strictly prohibited.
2.7. You may not sell, transfer and/or acquire accounts to/from other players.
2.8. You agree that all information that you give us, such as but not limited to, identity number, address and e-mail, during the term of validity of this agreement is complete, true, correct, and that you will immediately notify Speedy Casino of changes of such information or change such details by yourself on the Websites.
2.9. You may only participate in any Game only if you have sufficient funds on your account for such participation.
2.10. You may not use funds that are tainted or associated with any illegality and, in particular, do not originate from any illegal activity or source. You may be required to evidence the source of your funds as part of Speedy Casino KYC procedures.
2.11. You are solely responsible for reporting and accounting for any taxes or other fees applicable to you under the relevant laws for any winnings that you receive from Speedy Casino. Speedy Casino shall not be held responsible for your failure to make payment of any taxes due by you to relevant authorities and shall be in no position to advise you of the same.
2.12. In relation to deposits and withdrawals of funds into and from your Account, you shall only use such credit cards and other financial instruments that are valid and lawfully belong to you. The use of financial instruments whose ownership is shared with other individuals, is not tolerated and will result in voiding of winnings.
2.13. You understand that by playing Games provided by us, you take the risk of losing money deposited into your account.
2.14. You shall not be involved in any fraudulent, collusive, fixing or other unlawful activity in relation to your or third parties’ participation in any of the Games and shall not use any software-assisted methods or techniques or hardware devices for your participation in any of the Games. We hereby reserve the right to invalidate any betting in the event of such behaviour.
2.15. You may only use the software for your own personal, recreational use in accordance with rules and terms and conditions we have established and in accordance with all applicable laws, rules and regulations.
2.16. You shall be courteous to other players using the Websites as well as support personnel employed by Speedy Casino and avoid rude or obscene comments.
3. Your Account
3.1. In order for you to be able to place bets and deposit money, you must first register personally with us and open an account (“account”).
3.2. You may only hold one Account with us at any single point in time. We reserve the right to close any multiple Accounts opened in the same name or in any way referable to the same person. At Hero Gaming’s sole discretion and in the event that we consider that multiple Accounts have been opened in genuine error, we may agree to credit one Account which you have opened with us with any balance remaining on your additional Account(s). Should we have reasonable grounds to believe that fraud has been committed or attempted, we reserve the right to cancel any related transaction, without prejudice to any other action. Only one account may be opened per IP address and/or computer device/household.
3.3. You must enter all mandatory information requested into your registration form all of which must be true and correct. It is your sole responsibility to ensure that the information you provide is true, complete and correct. You are hereby notified that we carry out verification procedures and that your Account may be blocked for access or closed if you are found to supply false or misleading information. You are required to update and keep up to date the mandatory information provided in the registration form in the event such information changes.
3.4. If you notice that you have more than one registered Account, you must notify us immediately. Failure to do so may lead to your Account being blocked for access.
3.5. As part of the registration process, you will need to enter your BankID details when you enter the Website. It is your sole and exclusive responsibility to ensure that your details are kept securely. You must not disclose your details to anyone. We are not responsible for any abuse or misuse of your Account by third parties due to your disclosure, whether intentional or accidental, whether active or passive, of your details to any third party.
3.6. You are not allowed to transfer funds from your Account to other players or to receive money from other players into your Account, or to transfer, sell and/or acquire, user accounts.
3.7. Speedy Casino reserves the right to refuse or close an Account at its sole discretion, but any contractual obligations already made by Speedy Casino shall, without prejudice to any rights available at law to Speedy Casino, be honoured accordingly.
3.8. Speedy Casino prohibits player collusion and do not allow any kind of robots and programmed devices to participate in game play.
3.9. If you wish to close your account, you may do so at any time, by contacting customer support in written form. The effective closure of the Account will correspond to the termination of the Terms and Conditions. In case the reason behind the closure of the Account is related to concerns about possible gambling addiction the player shall indicate it.
3.10. In the case a player account is closed, related information about the account is saved for up to five (5) years from the time the account is closed. Related information includes player name, identity number, address, phone, email and account transactional details. Speedy Casino reserves the right to under certain conditions (as described in these T&Cs) close your account. When your account is closed, Speedy Casino will promptly, and always within 5 (five) business days, pay out the balance on the player account to you. However, Speedy Casino will only pay back that which remains of the deposits made by you if your account is closed because you have been excluded from gambling as a result of misconduct. If Speedy Casino closes your account, we will inform you in writing thereof and of the reasons for the decision by e-mail.
3.11 When you apply for an Account, and at any time while you hold an Account with us, you accept that we may ask you for proof of your identity, address, age and origin of funds and, even if your account has been opened, to block it at our discretion at any time if we are not satisfied with the information with which you have supplied us or in the event that there is delay in supplying the requested information; request a photograph of you holding your colour identification document(s) where we have doubts as to the veracity of the account holder’s identity.
4. Deposits into your Account
4.1. We may charge assigned fees for processing deposits. If such fees occur, they shall be possible to see during the deposit process. Deposits may be made using bank deposit.
4.2. We will assign minimum deposit levels and maximum deposit levels as specified on the Websites.
4.3. Depositing funds into your account is made by use of any of the methods specified on the Websites, as may be amended from time to time. Details in respect to the timings for withdrawals in respect to the method utilized are available on the relevant pages of the Websites, as may be amended from time to time.
4.4 Deposited amounts are available on the Account within a reasonable amount of time after the confirmation of the deposit on all available deposit options unless extra verification procedures are needed as stated in 4.5.
4.5. In accordance with the Swedish Money Laundering Act (2017:630) and the Regulations and general advice on measures against money laundering and terrorist financing (LIFS 2018:11), we reserve the right to use additional procedures and means to verify your identity (Know Your Client) when effecting deposits into your Account.
4.6. If Speedy Casino mistakenly credits Your Account with winnings that do not belong to you, whether due to a technical or human error or otherwise, the amount will remain property of Speedy Casino and the amount will be transferred from Your Account. If prior to Speedy Casino becoming aware of the error You have withdrawn funds that do not belong to You, without prejudice to other remedies and actions that may be available at law, the mistakenly paid amount will constitute a debt owed by You to Speedy Casino. In the event of an incorrect crediting, you are obliged to notify Speedy Casino immediately by email.
4.7. You shall only use credit card and other financial instruments that are valid and lawfully belong to you.
4.8. The minimum deposit amount is one hundred (100) SEK for the first deposit, where after Speedy Casino has the right to increase the minimum deposit to two hundred (200) SEK.
4.9. It is unlawful to deposit money from ill-gotten means.
4.10. Speedy Casino accept payments made SEK. In case your payment account (i.e. your bank account or your eWallet-account) is in a different currency Speedy Casino, or you bank/eWallet as the case may be, will convert the funds to SEK before depositing it to your account. Likewise, the funds you withdraw will be sent to you in SEK and your bank/eWallet, as the case may, be will convert the funds to your payment account currency. Please note that any exchange premiums are payable by You.
4.11. We will perform security checks on random occasions and at our sole discretion. You accept that we may demand additional information in the event of a security check and that we may suspend and/or terminate your Account, registration or withhold your payment until we receive the appropriate information that we have requested.
4.12. Speedy Casino will only accept colour copies of identification documents.
4.13. Deposits made to your Speedy Casino account should commensurate with game play. Therefore, if in Hero Gaming’s discretion, there is suspicion of abuse (for instance, where a deposited amount has not been used for an appropriate level of game play and the user then makes a withdrawal request in relation to that deposited amount or where Hero Gaming suspects that you are abusing exchange rate fluctuations), we reserve the right in its absolute discretion to cancel the respective deposit(s) in part or in full, to retract any costs that may have resulted in conjunction therewith and to close the gaming account indefinitely. Hero Gaming further reserves the right to request and obtain satisfactory proof of deposit and additional copies of personal identification in such instances prior to processing any withdrawal request, the processing of such request to be entirely at Hero Gaming’s discretion and in accordance with applicable legislation.
4.14. Speedy Casino reserves the right to terminate an account, ban a player and retain all funds where that player is reasonably suspected of engaging in fraudulent activities which include, but are not limited to, use of stolen or falsified credit cards or account numbers, forgery, and submission of data or documents which are forged, stolen or otherwise misappropriated.
5.1. Available withdrawal options are to be clearly stated on the Websites and may differ depending on the market from which the player originates.
5.2. Withdrawals will be made to your bank account or other withdrawal methods available to choose from ‘the Website’ and/or chosen by Speedy Casino. Speedy Casino shall credit you back using the same method as you have previously deposited with, if the method allows this to be made.
5.3. Funds stuck in an aborted game will not be possible to withdraw.
5.4. The payment managers employed by Speedy Casino will carry out additional verification procedures for any pay-out exceeding the equivalent of 10 000 SEK or cumulative withdrawals exceeding 20 000 SEK, and further reserves the right to carry out such verification procedures also in case of lower pay-outs. Such verifications may for example include copies of a member’s passport and/or copies of a member’s utility bills.
5.5. All transactions shall be checked in order to prevent money laundering. The Company shall report any suspicious transaction to the relevant competent authorities in Sweden. If the player becomes aware of any suspicious activity relating to any of the Games of the Website, the player must report this to the Company immediately. Speedy Casino may suspend, block or close an Account and withhold funds if requested to do so in compliance with the Anti-Money Laundering Regulations.
5.6. The time for the withdrawal to be finalized may vary due to circumstances but a withdrawal attempt should be approved or denied within three (3) days. The player shall be informed about reasons for any delay if the time for the money to arrive at the players account exceeds ten (10) days.
5.7. If you win and decide to request a withdrawal of 200 000 SEK or more over a time interval of 30 days or less, we reserve the right to pay out your winnings in instalments over a certain period of time. We further reserve the right to limit withdrawals to 20 000 SEK per day.
5.8. Be advised that our products are consumed instantly during gameplay. Thus, we cannot provide refunds, returns of goods, or cancellation of your service when playing. If you play a game with real money, the money will be drawn from your player account instantly.
5.9. You shall not treat Speedy Casino as a banking institution nor expect any interest.
5.10. Speedy Casino reserves the right to charge a fee should you request a withdrawal without a Member Account turnover that is equal, or more than the amount of funds deposited.
6.1. Bonuses are only available for players that haven’t made a deposit and played on any of the Hero Gaming sites (Speedy Casino, Speedy Bet, and Casino Heroes) since January 1st, 2019.
6.2. The terms and conditions for a specific bonus- or marketing campaign are communicated together with such bonus or campaign.
6.3. Bonuses may contain a requirement that they need to be staked a certain amount of times before they can be withdrawn. These are called wagering requirements. If a bonus has a wagering requirement, winnings generated from the bonus stakes will be withdrawable after the wagering requirement has been met.
6.4. If a player misuses a bonus, by for example breaching the terms of the bonus offering, or by opening several accounts in order to receive multiple bonuses, we reserve the right to forfeit the bonus and all its winnings.
6.5. Speedy Casino reserves the right to close your account and not to issue refunds of any deposits, remittance of balances or winnings generated on the account, should we suspect bonus abuse has occurred. Abuse includes but is not limited to, cash stashing, bonus stashing, or else by depositing only to receive free spins and withdrawing your real money before wagering the amount deposited at least once.
7. Dormant & Inactive Accounts
7.1. An inactive account is an account that has nor registered any login during a period exceeding 12 (twelve) consecutive months.
7.2. A dormant account is an account that has nor registered any login during a period exceeding 30 (thirty) consecutive months.
7.3. When an account becomes inactive, Speedy Casino reserves the right to charge the account a monthly administrative fee of 50 SEK or an amount corresponding to 1% of the funds or available on the account, whichever is higher.
If after your Account has become inactive, you access your Account, you shall be entitled to reimbursement if you can proof one of the following:
1) You could not access your Account due to lack of internet connectivity;
2) You could not access your Account due to health-related impediments;
3) You could not access your Account due to another reasonable cause.
7.4. The procedure for removing funds from inactive and dormant accounts are made automatically and is reported in the backend system of the Websites administrational interface.
7.5. If your account has become dormant or inactive and you wish to claim your balance, you can do so by logging into your account and request a withdrawal or contact us via e-mail at [email protected] or live chat button on the websites.
7.6. If your account has become dormant or inactive and you wish to claim your balance, you can do so by logging into your account and request a withdrawal or contact us via e-mail at [email protected] or live chat button on the websites.
8. Responsible Gambling
8.1. Speedy Casino offers a variety of tools that can help you play in a safe environment. To access these tools, you must clearly describe your preferences by contacting customer service via email at [email protected], via live chat or by using the tools available on the websites to set your preferences. We encourage you to keep these actions in mind when playing on our sites.
8.2. You must set your deposit limit per day (00: 00-23: 59 CET), week (Monday-Sunday) and month (first calendar day, or at the activation date until the end of the month when the deposit limit is determined). Please note that you may not play before setting these limits. If you reach this limit, you may not make a deposit until it is restored. All deposit limits apply to all sites under our license.
8.3. Any self-exclusion will apply to all sites under our license. In case you choose to become self-excluded until further notice, the minimum period for self-exclusion is 12 months. You can also use the self-exclusion button available on the websites to shut you down immediately from the website, or use the option to shut yourself down via spelpaus.se to ensure that you are excluded from all other websites and operators under the supervision of the SGA. Under no circumstances will the account be reopened during the self-exclusion period. You can also use the "Panic Button" available on the websites to immediately stop playing for 24 hours.
8.4. In the event that you hold a gaming account with one of our brands / sites where the termination of the account is dependent on gambling addiction (either at your own request or when we have made that decision), you will not be able to open an account with another brand / site under our license. This is for your own safety and in accordance with the gaming legislation. Any new accounts that you open on any of our sites will be terminated if your original account was terminated due to gambling addiction. Profits will be deleted, and deposits made into these accounts will be refunded. Furthermore, we reserve the right to also inform relevant authorities and organizations.
8.5. We offer you the opportunity to limit the time you are logged in. Your time limit can be set per day, per week and / or per month. If you reach this time limit, you will not be able to log in until it is reset. All restrictions mentioned above apply to all sites under our license.
8.6. If you want to change the limits, the change will take effect immediately if it applies to a reduction and if you increase the limit it will start to apply after 72 hours.
8.7. We reserve the right to block or terminate your account on all Hero Gaming platforms if we believe that your continued use of our Services may adversely affect your health and well-being.
8.8. All game limits and self-suspension requests are directly applicable to all trademarks and / or websites under our license. Please note that if you opt out of games on speedycasino.com, you will not be able to continue using the sister sites under our license. This only applies if you have a registered account with the aforementioned. Should you attempt to circumvent the suspension in any way, which also includes registering an account with fake personal information and thus stating misleading information to avoid checks, Speedy Casino shall not be responsible for your continued gambling or reimbursement for any losses and may withhold money that is available on any account that we have discovered belongs to you.
8.9. With the help of pop-up messages, Speedy Casino will contact you with information about responsible gaming and the various tools we offer and their features. It is important that you read these messages as they contain information that we believe is helpful for you and your experience with us. If you have any questions about a message you receive or your account in general, you can always contact customer service at [email protected] or via Live chat.
8.10. For further information on how Speedy Casino works with Responsible Gambling, please click here.
10. Exceptional Circumstances & Aborted Games
10.1. Unexpected technical problems or circumstances outside the control of Speedy Casino such as technical problems at 3rd party providers or any other system allow Speedy Casino to cancel bets and give refunds to players.
10.2. Speedy Casino has the right to limit, cancel and refuse bets in the case they are considered to be too large or if we see that the betting pattern of the player takes place in such a way that the system is being abused.
10.3. If a refund is decided upon, the amount of the refund shall be returned to the player’s account, the player shall be informed, and the procedure finalized within 48 hours after the decision has been made.
10.4. In the case that a game is interrupted (e.g. because we are unintentionally disconnected from your equipment or if your gambling system is unexpectedly shut down, you will be given the opportunity to finish playing, unless otherwise specified in the specific game rules. If the game is not finished within 90 days, it will be terminated. This is performed on a monthly basis. If the game has been aborted or miscarried on the server, the player should be refunded.
10.5. If a campaign has in any way been misconfigured, Speedy Casino has the right to alter player's balances and account details to correct the mistake.
10.6. If a game contains a bug or misconfiguration that causes incorrect behaviour or pay out, Speedy Casino has the right to remove the game and alter player's balances and account details to correct the mistake.
10.7. The Company is not liable for any downtime, server disruptions, lagging, or any technical or political disturbance to the game play. Refunds may be given solely at the discretion of the management. Interrupted games or other errors and faults will however never negatively affect your member account or the game balance.
10.8. The Company shall accept no liability for any damages or losses which are deemed or alleged to have arisen out of or in connection with website or its content; including without limitation, delays or interruptions in operation or transmission, loss or corruption of data, communication or lines failure, any person’s misuse of the site or its content or any errors or omissions in content.
10.9. Speedy Casino may remove any game from the Websites at any time we see fit.
11.1. You may contact our customer service according to the instructions located at the Websites to give us any complaints regarding our services. Should you want to send us a complaint through email you may do so addressing [email protected]
11.2. Complaints are handled in the support department and escalated in the organization of Speedy Casino in the case that support personnel do not solve the case immediately. You will be informed about the state of your complaint to a reasonable level.
11.3 We aim to provide you with a substantive response to your complaint as soon as practically possible and seek to resolve your complaint within eight weeks from the date we receive the complaint. Depending on the complexity of the complaint, our investigation may take longer than eight weeks to resolve. We will ensure that we write to you within eight weeks of the date we receive your complaint with either a final response or an update of the position explaining why we are not in a position to provide a final response, and when we expect to be in a position to do so.
11.4. If your complaint is not resolved through our internal complaints procedure within eight weeks of receiving the complaint, we will write to you. You can submit a complaint to the Swedish Consumer Agency (www.konsumentverket.se) and/or get independent advice from Hallå Konsument (www.hallakonsument.se).
11.5 You can also use the European Dispute Resolution Platform (ODR) to make a complaint that will be resolved by a national independent dispute resolution body: https://ec.europa.eu/consumers/odr/, such as the Swedish Public Advisory Board. You can also complain to the Swedish Public Advisory Board directly: www.arn.se (address: Box 174, 101 23 Stockholm, Sweden).
12. Limitation of Liability
12.1. You enter the Website and participate in the Games at your own risk. The Websites and the Games are provided without any warranty whatsoever, whether express or implied.
12.2. Without prejudice to the generality of the preceding provision, we, our directors, employees, partners, service providers
12.2.1. do not warrant that the software, Games and the Websites are fit for their purpose;
12.2.2. do not warrant that the software, Games and the Websites are free from errors;
12.2.3. do not warrant that the software, Games and the Websites will be accessible without interruptions;
12.2.4. shall not be liable for any loss, costs, expenses or damages, whether direct, indirect, special, consequential, incidental or otherwise, arising in relation to your use of the Websites or your participation in the Games.
12.3. You understand and acknowledge that, if there is a malfunction in a Game or its interoperability, any bets made during such malfunctioning shall be void. Funds obtained from a malfunctioning Game shall be considered void, as well as any subsequent game rounds with said funds, regardless of what Games are played using such funds.
12.4. You hereby agree to fully indemnify and hold harmless us, our directors, employees, partners, and service providers for any cost, expense, loss, damages, claims and liabilities howsoever caused that may arise in relation to your use of the Website or participation in the Games.
12.5 All information displayed on our Websites are provided for information purposes only, and not intended to constitute professional advice of any kind. Neither Speedy Casino nor any of its independent providers is liable for any information errors, incompleteness, inaccuracy or delays, or for any actions taken in reliance of information contained herein.
13. Breaches, Penalties and Termination
13.1. If you breach any provision of these Terms and Conditions or we have a reasonable ground to suspect that you have breached them, we reserve the right to not open, to suspend, or to close your Account, or withhold payment of funds.
13.2. If Speedy Casino suspects that you are engaged in illegal and/or fraudulent activities when using any of the Websites; or in breach of this Agreement; or that you are having problems with creditors or otherwise detrimental to our business, we may freeze or terminate your account or cancel any stakes at our absolute discretion.
13.3. You acknowledge that Speedy Casino shall be the final decision-maker of whether you have violated Speedy Casino’s rules, terms or conditions in a manner that results in suspension or permanent barring from participation in our site(s).
14.1. If any provision of these Terms and Conditions is held to be illegal or unenforceable, such provision shall be severed from these Terms and Conditions and all other provisions shall remain in force unaffected by such severance.
15.1. We reserve the right to assign or otherwise lawfully transfer this agreement. You shall not assign or otherwise transfer this agreement.
16. Entire Agreement
17. Applicable law and jurisdiction
17.1. These Terms and Conditions shall be governed by the Laws of Sweden.
17.2. The parties agree that any dispute, controversy or claim arising out of or in connection with these Terms and Conditions, or the breach, termination or invalidity thereof, shall be submitted to the exclusive jurisdiction of the Swedish courts.